Mongolia is high, cold, and dry. It has an extreme continental climate with long, cold winters and short summers, during which most precipitation falls. The country averages 257 cloudless days a year, and it is usually at the center of a region of high atmospheric pressure.
The official language of Mongolia is Khalkha Mongolian, and is spoken by 90% of the population. A variety of dialects of Oirat and Buryat are spoken across the country, and there are also some speakers of Mongolic Khamnigan. In the west of the country, Kazakh and Tuvan, both Turkic languages, are also spoken.
The tugrik (code: MNT) is the official currency of Mongolia. It was historically subdivided into 100 m ng . Currently the lowest denomination in regular use is the 10-t gr g note and the highest is the 20, 000-t gr g note. Currency sign is U+20AE ₮.
Mongolia's population growth rate is estimated at 1.54% (2000 census). About two-thirds of the total population is under age 30, 36% of whom are under 14.
Ulan Bator or Ulaanbaatar is the capital and largest city of Mongolia. An independent municipality, the city is not part of any province, and its population as of 2008 is just over one million.
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