Due to Somalia's proximity
to the equator, there is not much seasonal variation in its climate. Hot
conditions prevail year-round along with periodic monsoon winds and
irregular rainfall. Mean daily maximum temperatures range from 30 to 40
C, except at higher elevations and along the eastern seaboard, where the
effects of a cold offshore current can be felt.
Somali and Arabic are the
official languages of Somalia, while English and Italian are designated
"second languages" by the Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali
Republic. The Somali language is the mother tongue of the Somali people,
the nation's most populous ethnic group.
The situation of the currency in Somalia is unknown, but as in
Afghanistan, banknotes of the old issue of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 and
1000 shilling are probably being produced without honouring the serial
The population of Somalia in 2003 was
estimated by the United Nations at 9, 890, 000, which placed it as number 80 in
population among the 193 nations of the world. In that year approximately 3% of
the population was over 65 years of age, with another 44% of the population
under 15 years of age.
Mogadishu is the largest city in Somalia and
the nation's capital.