It is one of the driest
deserts in the world, some places have an average annual precipitation
of only 12 mm. The highest temperature recorded in Ashgabat is 48.0 C
and Kerki, an extreme inland city located on the banks of the Amu Darya
river, recorded 51.7 C in July 1983, although this value is unofficial.
50.1C is the highest temperature recorded at Repetek Re serve,
recognized as the highest temperature ever recorded in the whole former
Turkmen is the official language of Turkmenistan (per the 1992
Constitution), although Russian still is widely spoken in cities as a
"language of inter-ethnic communication". Turkmen is spoken by 72% of the
population, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, and other languages 7%.
The Manat is the currency of Turkmenistan. It was introduced on November
1, 1993, replacing the Russian ruble at a rate of 1 manat = 500 ruble.
The ISO 4217 code is TMM and the manat is subdivided into 100 tennesi.
The abbreviation m is sometimes used, e.g., 25 000 m is twenty-five
The population of Turkmenistan in 2003 was estimated by the United
Nations at 4, 867, 000, which placed it as number 113 in population
among the 193 nations of the world. In that year approximately 4% of the
population was over 65 years of age, with another 38% of the population
under 15 years of age.
Ashgabat is the capital and largest city of Turkmenistan, a country in