Although Turkey is situated
in a geographical location where climatic conditions are quite
temperate, the diverse nature of the landscape, and the existence in
particular of the mountains that run parallel to the coasts, result in
significant differences in climatic conditions from one region to the
other. While the coastal regions enjoy milder climates, the inland
Anatolia plateau experiences hot summers and cold winters with limited
Turkish is spoken as a
native language by over 83 million people worldwide, making it the most
commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. Its speakers are located
predominantly in Turkey and Northern Cyprus with smaller groups in Iraq,
Greece, Bulgaria, the Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo, Albania and other
parts of Eastern Europe. Turkish is also spoken by several million
immigrants in Western Europe, particularly in Germany.
The Turkish lira is the currency of Turkey and the de facto independent
state of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. The lira is subdivided
into 100 kuruş. All notes and coins of Turkish Lira have portraits of
Mustafa Kemal Atat rk from different points of his life since 1930s
(with the exception of some notes of second emission, 1937-1942, which
features İsmet İn n ) on the obverse side.
The population of Turkey in 2003 was estimated by the United Nations at
71, 325, 000, which placed it as number 16 in population among the 193
nations of the world. In that year approximately 6% of the population
was over 65 years of age, with another 30% of the population under 15
years of age.
Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the country's second largest city
after Istanbul. The city has a mean elevation of 938 metres (3, 077 ft),
and as of 2008 the city had a population of 4, 500, 000. Ankara also
serves as the capital of Ankara Province.