Turkey is situated in a geographical location where
climatic conditions are quite temperate, the diverse
nature of the landscape, and the existence in particular
of the mountains that run parallel to the coasts, result
in significant differences in climatic conditions from
one region to the other. While the coastal regions enjoy
milder climates, the inland Anatolia plateau experiences
hot summers and cold winters with limited rainfall.
is spoken as a native language by over 83 million people
worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the
Turkic languages. Its speakers are located predominantly
in Turkey and Northern Cyprus with smaller groups in
Iraq, Greece, Bulgaria, the Republic of Macedonia,
Kosovo, Albania and other parts of Eastern Europe.
Turkish is also spoken by several million immigrants in
Western Europe, particularly in Germany.
The Turkish lira is the currency of
Turkey and the de facto independent state of the Turkish
Republic of Northern Cyprus. The lira is subdivided into
100 kuruş. All notes and coins of Turkish Lira have
portraits of Mustafa Kemal Atat rk from different points
of his life since 1930s (with the exception of some
notes of second emission, 1937-1942, which features
İsmet İn n ) on the obverse side.
The population of Turkey in 2003 was
estimated by the United Nations at 71, 325, 000, which
placed it as number 16 in population among the 193
nations of the world. In that year approximately 6% of
the population was over 65 years of age, with another
30% of the population under 15 years of age.
Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the
country's second largest city after Istanbul. The city
has a mean elevation of 938 metres (3, 077 ft), and as of
2008 the city had a population of 4, 500, 000. Ankara also
serves as the capital of Ankara Province.
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